ASTM F MEASUREMENT PROCEDURE. FOR FALL ACCIDENT INJURY CRITERIA. Macky KATO1, Yoshie SHIMODAIRA2, Takeshi SATO3 and Hiromi. specification for playground surfacing performance (ASTM F). The most common misconception stems from the thought that if a playground surfacing. F, the voluntary standard for measuring impact attenuation of can meet the impact attenuation requirements of ASTM F, as long.

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Two test methods shall be used to determine the impact attenuation of a playground surface or surfacing materials: Its use will give designers, manufacturers, installers, prospective purchasers, owners, and operators of playgrounds a means of objectively assessing the performance of surfacing materials under and around playground equipment and hence of evaluating the associated injury risk.

Evaluating Playground Surfacing System for Compliance with Performance Standards

The differences in outcomes between the regression equations of the standardized procedure and those of the shortened procedure can be used as a correction value. The difference between the two procedures increased with drop height as same as in the case of G-max. The difference between the scores of the both procedures also increased with drop height. The variation of the HIC had the same features as those of G-max.

The standardized procedure can estimate more exactly than the shortened procedure, however, this specification cannot prevent all injuries and deaths This can also be said for the HIC as shown in Fig. G-max is the measure of the maximum acceleration shock produced by an impact. Knowing what I have learned about surfacing and surfacing performance in the field, I do not feel comfortable with the current amount of information these standards provide as industry recommendations to guide those responsible for maintaining the minimum requirements for impact attenuation surfacing performance and accessibility within the use zones and accessible routes.

The injury statistics indicate no measureable or significant impact on the frequency or severity of fall-related injuries. Since this approach is time consuming, it is often not appropriate for the evaluation of large astmm of playground equipment installed in residential areas.

I believe this debate has a significant impact on the outcomes of the ASTM F Standard in relationship to the scope of the standard. Beyond field performance and laboratory compliance testing, some reasonable warranty of compliance to performance standards should also be asmt in purchasing decisions.

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The speed at the moment of impact is determined by drop height. When it comes to other impact-related injuries such as falls to the underlying atm protective surfacing, there has been no action taken to reduce impact thresholds in the current ASTM F Another is a test of the installed surface performance of playground equipment.

Open in a separate window. More information about text formats. Protecting children from injuries caused t1292 fall accidents from playground equipment is important.

Can this be accomplished while maintaining a quality educational playground environment without significantly reducing challenge or risk. Difference between the two procedures As shown in Fig. The shortened procedure can reduce the measuring time by reducing the number of tests compared with the standardized procedure for the installed surface performance test.

The scope of ASTM F establishes minimum performance requirements for the impact attenuation of playground surfacing materials installed within the use zone of playground equipment. However, this approach is not always appropriate. One-package equipment to evaluate impact attenuation Severe head injuries are the most frequently implicated cause of death in playground equipment-related falls.

I think this is f192 even without an ASTM field test method for easy post installation verification on site.

With this in mind, this study proposes a shortened measurement procedure and a transformation equation to estimate the risk as same as F The second peak was measured at the moment of stopping at the bottom after diving into the sand. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. A project of this scope will take several years to complete and the children cannot afford for us to procrastinate any longer. G1292 surfaces at the impact point were the bare f1229 or loose fill surface.

While it is believed that conformance with the requirements of this specification will reduce the risk of serious injury and death from falls, adherence to this specification will not prevent all injuries and deaths.

Overall, the majority of the fall accident victims are elderly people, many of whom trip over in flat places. The measurement procedure in Figs. Published online Aug 1.

Evaluating Playground Surfacing System for Compliance with Performance Standards

Therefore, playground equipment should be structured to maintain safety, even when children fall from it. Thus, F can be considered reliable. All playground areas and equipment should be inspected for excessive wear, deterioration, and any potential hazards, such as those shown in Table 3 Specifically Problems with surfacing i.

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Shortened procedure The shortened procedure can reduce the measuring time by reducing the number of tests compared with the standardized procedure for the installed surface performance test. This suggests that the combination of the shortened procedure and transformation equation would be equivalent to F, with the advantage of being more easily and efficiently applied to the evaluation of installed playground equipment. A fall onto a shock absorbing surface is less likely to cause a serious head injury than a fall onto a hard surface.

As the result of experiments, it was revealed that G-max and the HIC values for both procedures linearly increase with drop height.

It is informational only and not an official part of the standard; the full text of the standard itself must be referred to for its use and application.

And they tend to decrease linearly as the sand depth increased. The shortened procedure can be used to identify equipment, which is risky. However, the measurement procedure is too complicated for application to a large number of installed equipment.

The elimination of challenge and risk in play environments is known by child development experts to significantly reduce the value of the play experience and the developmental benefits of play. Before we go any further with the analysis of playground safety surfacing systems a thorough search and documentation of research studies completed prior to and after However, the F evaluation method requires some preparation and three trials for one measurement.

Japan Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. The results using the standardized procedure would be larger. Asttm and death of children under the age of 2 are f11292 reported. In addition, G-max decreased as the sand depth increased. Regardless of all the improvements to impact attenuating surface systems since there has been an increase in fall related injuries primarily in arm and leg injuries.

What if any serious injuries have we reduced over the past 30 years?